- HOWE, George (1769-1821)
- first Australian editor and early printerwas the son of Thomas Howe, a printer in the West Indies, and was born at St Kitts in 1769. When about 21 he went to London and worked as a printer in The Times office. In 1800 he was sentenced to seven years transportation to New South Wales, and arrived at Sydney on 22 November. His offence is not known, but it is not unlikely that he was a political offender; his father had been involved in political turmoil in the West Indies and his son may have followed in his steps. A small printing press had been brought to Australia by Governor Phillip (q.v.), and a convict named George Hughes printed on it a considerable number of orders, rules and regulations. Soon after he arrived George Howe became the government printer, and in 1802 printed New South Wales General Standing Orders consisting of 146 pages, the first book to be printed in Australia. In May 1803 Governor King (q.v.), in a dispatch to Lord Hobart, mentioned the establishment of the Sydney Gazette as a weekly publication—its first number had appeared on 5 March—and asked that a new fount of type should be sent to Sydney. The paper was carried on at the risk of Howe, who, though he had been pardoned in 1806, did not receive a salary as government printer until 1811. It was then only £60 a year, and in the meantime Howe conducted the Gazette under incredible difficulties, often running out of paper and suffering much from patrons who fell behind in their subscriptions. Howe tried various expedients to keep his household going, at one time keeping a school and at another becoming a professional debt collector. In addition to the Gazette Howe began the publication of the New South Wales Pocket Almanac in 1806, which became a regular yearly publication from 1808 to 1821. He also began trading in sandalwood, and in 1813 found himself liable for over £90 of duty on two consignments. He appears to have become more prosperous, as in 1817 he was one of the original subscribers when the Bank of New South Wales was founded. He died on 11 May 1821 and left an estate of £400. He was married twice, and his second wife survived him with children of both marriages. He seems to have been a man of indomitable spirit and, considering his difficulties, was a good printer and editor. The memorial placed in the printing office by his son stated that "his charity knew no bounds".Howe's eldest son, Robert Howe (1795-1829), carried on the business. He printed the first magazine The Australian Magazine; or, Compendium of Religious, Literary, and Miscellaneous Intelligence (1821), the first Australian hymn-book, An Abridgment of the Wesleyan Hymns, selected from the larger Hymn-book published in England (1821), and the first Church of England hymn-book, Select Portions of the Psalms of David etc. (1828). The first volume of verse published by a native-born Australian Wild Notes from the Lyre of a Native Minstrel by Charles Tompson junior (q.v.), which appeared in 1826, is an excellent example of R. Howe's typographical work. Conducting a newspaper in those days had many dangers. Howe survived several libel suits, he was horsewhipped by William Redfern (q.v.) and another man assaulted him with a bayonet and seriously wounded him. He applied to the governor for the title of "King's Printer" but before the news of the granting of this reached Sydney Howe was drowned off Fort Denison on 29 January 1829. A younger half-brother, George Terry Howe (c. 1806-63), went to Tasmania in October 1821, subsequently was in partnership with James Ross, and in 1825 was appointed government printer at Hobart. He afterwards returned to Sydney and died there on 6 April 1863. He was married and had six daughters and a son.Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols IV, VII to X; J. A. Ferguson, Mrs A. G. Foster and H. M. Green, The Howes and Their Press; J. A. Ferguson, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XIII, pp. 344-61; G. B. Barton, Literature in New South Wales; A. W. Jose, Builders and Pioneers of Australia; J. A. Ferguson, Bibliography of Australia; Mrs A. G. Foster, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. X, pp. 103-18.
Dictionary of Australian Biography by PERCIVAL SERLE. Angus and Robertson. 1949.
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